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How does HPCG relate to other benchmarks.

Will HPCG replace High Performance Linpack (HPL)?
We do not intend to eliminate HPL. HPCG will provide an alternative ranking of the TOP500 machines. We expect that HPCG will take several years to both mature and emerge as a widelyvisible metric.

Isn't HPCG just another version of the STREAM benchmark?
If the reference version of HPCG is used for performance analysis, the fraction
of time spent in the (unoptimized) sparse kernels (in particular ComputeSPMV and
ComputeSYMGS) will be very high, and HPCG performance will be dominated by
memory system performance. In this case, for computer systems with a good
reduction networks, or HPCG runs using few MPI processes, the benchmark will
give rankings that are very similar to STREAM.
However, this is true for many benchmarks. If HPL were executed with
reference Fortran computational kernels (Basic Linear Algebra Subprograms),
HPL would also look like a STREAM benchmark.
Warnings have been added to HPCG reports to let the benchmarker know
that performance will be suboptimal when using reference kernels.
Even after optimization of HPCG, its overall performance will still be heavily
influenced by memory system performance, but not solely by how fast data streams
from memory. Memory latency, synchronous global and neighborhood collectives,
and thread control transferall of which have strong dependencies on memory system
performanceare important factors in the performance of an optimized version of
HPCG.

How is HPCG different from NAS PB CG (NAS Parallel Benchmarks, CG component)?
NAS PB CG uses random sparsity pattern which naturally leads to twodimensional distribution of the matrix for optimality. This results in computation and communication patterns that are nonphysical. Another difference is the lack of preconditioning, does not allow to show the effects of local triangular solve. The options for introducing such a preconditioning component are limited due to the nonphysical sparsity pattern.


HPCG Details

What's the average vector length in HPCG?
For axpylike and ddotlike operations, the vector length is
the size of the submatrix on each MPI process, typically 1M
or more.
For the SpMV, the vector lengths in the reference kernel average
about 25, with indexed reads (gathers) and summation in to a single
value. This is the inner loop of the sparse row format MV. This is
the basic pseudo code:
for (i=0; i<nrow; ++i) { // Number of rows on this MPI process (big)
double sum = 0.0;
for (j=ptr[i]; j<ptr[i+1]; ++j)
sum += A[j] * x[col[j]]; // This loop is on average length 25
y[i] = sum;
}
For the SymGS, the vector lengths is on average 12, with the same
index read pattern, except that the loop does not naturally vectorize
since the SymGS operation is like a triangular solve, recursive.
Optimized implementations of SpMV tend to reorder the matrix data
structure so that the SpMV loops are still indexed reads, but are
of length nrow (same as axpy), using, for example, the Jagged Diagonal
or Ellpack format.
Optimized implementations of SymGS are also reordered to get longer
vector lengths, but typically are a fraction of nrow, or much smaller,
depending on whether targeted for the GPU or a CPU. The GPU approach
uses multicoloring, so that vector lengths are approximately nrow/8.
The CPU approach will use levelscheduling where vector lengths will
vary a lot, but are typically in the range of 15  100. The GPU
approach takes more iterations, which is penalized by HPCG.
All optimized SymGS approaches use indexed reads.


Optimization of HPCG
What could be done to make HPCG run more optimally on your system and what are the allowed optimizations.

Is it permitted to use a custom ordering for the matrix?
Yes, it is permitted to use a custom ordering of the grid points. This is facilitated with the function OptimizeProblem() and the optimizationData members of various data structures.

Can I change the GaussSeidel preconditioner to make it parallel?
It is not permitted to change the preconditioner but it is allowed to change the ordering of the matrix to facilitate parallel preconditioning.

How big must the problem size be when running HPCG?
HPCG can be run in just a few minutes from start to finish. However, official
runs must be at least 1800 seconds (30 minutes) as reported in the output file.
The Quick Path option is an exception for machines that are in production mode
prior to broad availability of an optimized version of HPCG 3.0 for a given platform.
In this situation (which should be confirmed by sending a note to the HPCG Benchmark
owners) the Quick Path option can be invoked by setting the run time parameter equal
to 0 (zero).
A valid run must also execute a problem size that is large enough so that data
arrays accessed in the CG iteration loop do not fit in the cache of the device
in a way that would be unrealistic in a real application setting. Presently this
restriction means that the problem size should be large enough to occupy a
significant fraction of "main memory", at least 1/4 of the total.
Future memory system architectures may require restatement of the specific memory
size requirements. But the guiding principle will always be that the problem
size should reflect what would be reasonable for a real sparse iterative solver.

Why doesn't HPCG include variant X of the CG algorithm?
We are aware of many variants of the CG algorithm and their benefits for particular matrices. At the same time, we strive for simplicity of the reference implementation and permit only selected optimizations that allow the results to remain representative of a wide range of CG variants.

Are specialized matrix storage format allowed in optimized run?
Any storage format that is specific to HPCG matrix sparsity is not allowed.
However, the storage formats applicable for many kinds of sparsity patterns are permitted.
For example, a diagonal storage format is likely to be very good for HPCG matrix but is too specific for HPCG and artificially reduces the amount of data transferred across the system.

Is data compression allowed for matrix and vector data?
We do not permit matrix compression to be performed on the HPCG data because of its predictable structure that can be easily exploited for an apriori optimal compression scheme.
Data compression, and especially the kind that takes advantage of the known matrix structure, reduces the data transfer amount that most solvers are unable to replicate for majority of use cases.


HPCG Results

What is the fraction of peak in the results?
The "fraction of peak" is a derived value reported in the HPCG Results table.
It is a result of dividing the HPCG Pflop/s value by the peak performance of the machine that is reported as Rpeak in TOP500.
